2.9 Epitope mapping 

Gemini Biosciences' epitope mapping service is designed to determine the antigenic determinant (epitope) of the customer's antibody of interest whether the epitope is linear, discontinuous or conformational.

Our epitope mapping service is fast, precise and cost-effective.

The precise identification of antibody epitopes is important for various reasons including: selection and characterisation of antibodies for specific applications, especially where epitope similarity or dissimilarity issues are involved; intellectual property (IP) reasons e.g. assessing the potential to establish IP rights (patenting, ‘freedom to operate’, etc.) and regulatory filings e.g. the FDA and EMA guidelines require specific binding site information to be included in regulatory documents for new biologics or therapeutic/diagnostic antibodies.

Typically, antibody epitopes can be classified into three groups:

  • Linear epitopes: defined by the primary amino acid sequence of a particular region of a protein. The epitope can usually be mimicked with linear peptides.

  • Conformational epitopes: defined not only by a primary amino acid sequence but also by its spatial conformation. Appropriate epitope mimicry usually requires constrained peptides.

  • Discontinuous epitopes: the epitope consists of non-adjacent parts of the protein sequence, which are brought together in 3D structure by constraints.

Our approach

Gemini Biosciences used three different strategies to determine epitopes i.e. mass spectrometry (Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry - HDX MS), peptide arrays and phage display technologies. The approach for each project is determined after discussion with the client to ensure that their requirements are satisfied and based on the reagents available.

Benefits of our approach

  • Flexibility of experimental strategy enabling the use of a technique that is most likely to be successful thus enhancing the chances of success of the project. 

  • Applicable for conformational, discontinuous and linear epitopes.

  • Applicable for any therapeutic proteins, antigen. No limit in size. No limit in complexity (multimers, hydrophobicity)

  • Speed: 3-6 weeks per epitope.

  • Possibility to screen multiple monoclonal antibodies in parallel against a single target.

  • Only the sequence of the protein antigen is required depending on the approach that is appropriate for client's project

  • No need for crystallography or recombinant protein work depending on the approach that is appropriate for client's project