6.1 Solution state biological NMR

Solution-state NMR is the most versatile analytical tool for the biophysical analysis of proteins.


Gemini Biosciences Process:











Solution-state NMR can be used for the following main purposes:


  • determination of high- and atomic-resolution three-dimensional structures of proteins oof molecular mass smaller than about 30-35kD. 

  • a quick assessment of whether  a recombinant protein is folded or unfolded, or in a molten globular state

  • determination of whether and how a ligand binds to a protein. The ligand can be an inhibitor, natural ligand, cofactor, etc. The ligands can be small molecules, peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, etc.

  • determination of dissociation constants of weak binding ligands

  • the initial screening  of compounds and fragments in a drug discovery campaign

  • metabolite characterization










Gemini Biosciences' NMR service includes the following:


  • Designing appropriate approaches  and workflow for a structural biology project

  • Expression and production of pure Escherichia coli expressed recombinant protein in milligram quantities

  • Production of uniformly and selectively  13C, 15N, 2H- labeled proteins and peptides

  • Acquisition of multi-dimensional NMR data for structure calculations

  • Determination of protein structures by NMR and X-ray crystallography

  • Determining the structures of proteins and ligands using a combination of NMR and computer docking.

  • Sample preparation of tissues, cell extracts, and biofluids for metabolomics studies.


The following hardware is available for use to deliver our customers' projects:


  • 800 MHz spectrometer with high sensitivity cryogenic heads for solution studies 


  • 700 and 600 MHz spectrometers with high sensitivity cryogenic heads for solution studies plus automated sample changer for metabolomics, ligand screening, and metabolite identification


These three spectrometers are state-of-the-art and capable of performing most of the experiments that are essential for modern structural biology projects.
















Please contact us for details of our process and a quote.

Solution state biological NMR process
NMR structure of protein in solution